Pætland is situated on the northern coast of West Yoju, situated between Talamh Chaonaigh to the north and the Republic of Sora to the south and west.
The land border it shares with Talamh Chaonaigh is mostly made up of the Pætlandic Highlands, an area of rugged terrain which was throughout much of history largely impassable. Where there is a sea-border with Talamh Chaonaigh, in the west it follows the midline between the county of Hiđer Leiþninatin and the Chaonaigh peninsula Leithinis na dTine in the county of Móinéar Beag. From that point the boundary remains in open ocean.
The border with Talamh Chaonaigh lies on the Highlands, and has few major settlements on the border. Though tensions between the two countries have often been enflamed, the terrain means that few border-crossings, military checkpoints and bases lie near the border: The most notable are at Ænglescynnburh, Caer Liƿelydd, Hƿītpecfyrdwīc, Lincylene-on-þe-Mær, Talamgeheald, Toƿtatishūs-bineoþan-þe-Dūnstīg, and at Yeoguþsbēam.
The border with Sora is far longer and over terrain that is neither impassable nor underpopulated. As a result, there is a greater military and administrative presence, and a much greater density of border-crossings. However, relations with Sora range over time from neutral to receptive, and as such the border is only so militarised as to facilitate good administration and to satisfy the needs and wants of the military establishment.
In the north of the country, the terrain of the Highlands is mostly Caledonide, made up of metamorphic and igneous rock formations. Throughout the west of the country is Ordovician and Silurian rock formations which create a natural biome of craggy uplands separated by heathlands and bogs. The central parts of the country, Miercnaland, is dominated by granite intrusions into what is otherwise coal-dense carboniferous rock in the north, and continuing Ordovician and Silurian rock formations towards the south. A thin strip of pronounced granite features is present throughout the counties Loidis and Fuđþerland, Cyngestūn, and Brādanford, which has created the trademark outcrops and tors of the region.
In the most populous areas of Pætland, the centre-east and the coastal eastern regions, a blanket of Carboniferous limestone encases the metamorphic rock beneath, creating a fertile agricultural region throughout Ƿestseaxnaland and Sūþseaxnaland. Coastal areas of Pætland, especially Cantƿaraland, have a thick bed of chalk throughout the rolling downs, which is rich in flint and common minerals. The northern coastal regions continue with an unremarkable geology of Ordovician and Silurian rock and Carboniferous limestones.
Pætland has average reserves of minerals and metals, including iron ore, and large deposits of coal in the North Miercnaland region. Though Pætland has above average reserves of peat, coal and timber, the geology of the region is not conducive to the development of oil reserves and the country has zero oil production. Prospectors believe the country has natural gas fields, but the government has not shown any interest in developing this potential.
The ecology of Pætland lies in two provinces, according to the government of the Democratic Republic: A comparatively productive agricultural region in the far east of the country, and comparatively desolate stretches of heathland, peat bogs and craggy uplands throughout about two-thirds of the country's land area. With an Oceanic climate, Summers are temperate and Winters are very cold as the country lies at a far-northern latitude. Inland areas are warmer in summer and colder in winter.
Precipitation falls throughout the year, and is particularly heavy through spring as well as late Autumn. Through the Winter months, it snows and hails often. The entire country is fairly uniform in this regard, although the east is slightly wetter overall.
Pætland is subdivided into 103 shires (scīrs), more commonly known as counties. Since the abolition of the country's eight provinces, a colonial-era institution, these counties are the first-level administrative structure of Pætland.
The 103 counties are required by law to have a designated name in the Sæxisc language, a designated capital in which the county council must be based, and must subscribe to the various laws and ordinances set forth by the national parliament with regard to their governance and administrative structure.
Whilst the counties were established as part of far-reaching reforms of local government, particularly with a view to fostering grass-roots democracy and social participation, allegations have persisted that the county councils have been organised to reflect the institutional power of the incumbent Progressive-Conservative government. As county councils are steadily being granted more power, fears that they shall become a bastion of the Progressive-Conservatives outside of government, so should they lose future elections they shall still be able to maintain institutional control through the county-level administrative structure.